The following paragraphs provide an overview of the important concepts and skills students in this grade level will learn. More importantly, teachers are provided a cursory look at how instruction in prior grades has built the foundation for the material in the current grade level. It is imperative that teachers understand that the topics outlined in the paragraphs, as well as the Standards listed within each trimester of the Pacing View, are not exclusive to the trimesters in which they are listed; the Common Core State Standards are not a list of Standards that can be “checked off” once they have been taught. For students to truly master the rigorous concepts and skills of the Common Core State Standards, they will need to be exposed to the Standards in multiple settings and situations, making connections between and among the Standards from different Domains. This will obviously require the revisiting of Standards over the course of the entire year. Finally, to ensure that the Standards are taught to the depth of understanding required in the Common Core State Standards, teachers will need to be keenly aware of how their lessons today can and will be extended and expanded in future lessons that may occur in subsequent trimesters and grade levels.
In kindergarten, instructional time should be devoted to building number sense. The foundation begins with Counting and Cardinality (CC). Students begin with learning number names and the counting sequence. As kindergarteners progress with counting, they are able to count to determine the number of objects in a set. Connecting counting to “how many” and the ability to understand one-to-one correspondence is essential as students build conceptual understanding prior to comparing numbers and composing and decomposing. As students are recognizing amounts in their environment, they must also begin to identify and describe two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes (G).
Once kindergarteners develop a solid foundation for counting and cardinality, they are ready to begin working with direct modeling. Students should use direct modeling to create the various situations involved in addition and subtraction (OA). As students work on understanding through their modeling of the different types of contextual problems, they begin to compose and decompose numbers and are able to compare amounts. This composing and decomposing of numbers is a vital first step toward understanding base-ten notation for numbers greater than 9 (NBT).
As students recognize amounts and compare, they are able to apply these skills to situations found in the areas of measurement (MD) and geometry (G). Students classify objects into categories where they can analyze and count the objects. Students can also use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes. The understanding of number sense and counting, connects to classifying, analyzing, counting objects, and making comparisons, allowing for the integration of topics across domains.